Crisis Phase

Crisis Phase

On 18 Jan 1968, a Secessionist movement came on surface which in history is also known as “Agartala Conspiracy Case”, General Akbar khan was one of the main characters of this Case including other 33 members and Mujib-ur-Rehman was also one of them, These people started this Conspiracy to overthrow the government of Pakistan and takeover it. These 34 people including generals were arrested out of which 3 were killed in the prison. On 8 January 1969, Bengalis established Democratic Action Committee, its main purpose was to fight for the autonomy of the Country. During 7 December 1968 and 30 January 1969, 675 people got killed in clashes with the State authorities. On 22 February 1969, Mujib-ur-Rehman was released from jail as He was arrested in the West Pakistan, He was released with the assurity that he will never go against the solidarity of Pakistan. On March 1969, Ayub khan imposed second martial law of Pakistan and General Yahya khan who was the Chief of Army Staff at that time was appointed as the Administrator of martial law. On 7th December 1970, elections were held under the pressure of political parties specially Pakistan People Party (PPP). Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the head of (PPP) and as He was famous in both East and West Pakistan He thought that He will easily win the elections but Awami League won 167 seats out of 313 seats and that was a land slide victory this meant that Mujib-ur-Rehman will be the next Prime Minister. After this Z.A Bhutto and other political parties and Yahya Khan refused to give power to Awami League, due to this Bengalis felt that they were second class people in front of West Pakistanis. On 1971 in Karachi Z.A Bhutto used very harsh word for Bengalis in his speech which also added fuel to the fire. Emergency got imposed in East Pakistan on 25 March 1971 and General Tikka Khan who was the Lieutenant General of Pakistan was appointed as the Emergency Administrator in Bengal to control the situation and General Tikka Khan was quite successful as he got full control of the anti-state authorities including Mukti Bahini and He was quite an active administrator in Bengal but His behavior was very brutal with the anti-state elements as they still remember him as the Butcher of Bengal. On 26 March 1971, President Yahya Khan banned Awami League, this means that the number of seats Awami League had won was set to zero and Mujib-ur-Rehman was arrested again. On 31 March 1971, right after that incident India urged support to Mukti Bahini and started giving them weapons in June 1971. On 14 April 1971, Bengali nationalist declared East Pakistan independent from West Pakistan due to this military had to intervened again. General Tikka Khan badly crushed Mukti Bahini in Gopalpur on 5th May 1971 and remaining people of Mukti Bahini ran to India to save their lives. On the same day Britain and US impose military sanctions in Pakistan and Pakistan was not allowed to buy any weapon. On 27th November 1971, India attacked Bengal. On 4th December 1971, United States took matter to United Nation Organization (UNO) and appealed for the Ceasefire in United Nation General Assembly of Pakistan but Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto refused to do ceasefire in East Pakistan and in the result on 16th December 1971, General Niazi, who was the Army Commander in East Pakistan was ordered by Yahya Khan to stop fighting and offer an unconditional surrender with 40,000 soldiers and 50,000 civilians and ammunition supplies sufficient to fight for months. After surrender by Pakistan Army the Mukti Bahini began its revenge by killing anyone suspected of having collaborated with the Pakistan army. It is also alleged that Pakistan army during the final days of Pakistani control carried out massacre of professional Bengalis to weaken the new country. On 20 December 1971, Yahya Khan resigned as President to make way for Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to take over. On 21 December 1971, the Republic of Bangladesh was officially declared. Mujib-ur-Rehman was released by Z.A Bhutto on 8th January 1972 and sworn in as the 1st Prime Minister of Bangladesh.

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